Monday, January 21, 2019
van Beethoven and Haydn provide several examples of sonatas. Two piano sonatas in particular ar Beethovens Piano Sonata No. 5 in C minor, and Haydns Piano Sonata No. 49 in C-sharp minor. Haydn wrote earlier in the mid to late 1700s, while Beethoven wrote approximately a hundred years later.For that reason, it is likely (and, in fact, true in these examples) that Haydns style would be more typical of normal sonata variate. The Beethoven sonata begins with a piddling A thought (which crashes staccato style in the midst of piano and forte), followed by a softer, more musical B tooth root.There is no transitional material between the A and B radicals the A theme simply ends and the B theme begins in the next measure. There is solely a brief pause between them. The rendering repeats, and lasts laughablely grand before the transition and development begin. The transition is truly brief, only a few measures, and the development is also fairly brief. The recapitulation begins s hortly afterwards. The sonata form is rather ill-defined throughout the piece it is not a cadence example by any means. The A theme is solidly in C minor, but the B theme is major.It is not the dominant, which is extremely unusual it is probably in V/iv. It is difficult to tell what identify it is in during the B theme as there is no transition, which is traditional, and it is not in the dominant. The recapitulation of this hunting expedition is two simple chords that argon struck in staccato fashion, equivalent to the A theme material. The chords sound like V-I, which is a standard ending. The tonic-dominant relationship in this movement isnt as firm as it would ordinarily be in a sonata transitions are unclear or unused keys are unusual.This is an odd example of sonata form. The Haydn sonata is a more more typical example of sonata form. It begins with an A theme in the exposition in C minor, and moves, with a brief transition, into a B theme in the dominant. The A theme is a contrast between a forte staccato section, and a piano lyrical section, very similar to the Beethoven piece. The B theme is in general more lyrical and flowing than the A theme although it has staccato moments as well. The motives are very obvious, so it is easy to tell when the themes return, which they do throughout the movement.The exposition repeats. Afterwards, a development begins, with a very brief x section at the beginning as transitional material. The development contains a sequence in the middle of it, and the piece goes through several key changes there, landing on a V7 I to finish the sequence. This sequence repeats later in the movement as well, just before the beginning of the recapitulation. The sequence is characterized by the ferocity of the bass in half notes with sixteenth notes playing over the top. It moves primarily in major seconds, but not exclusively.The A section repeats almost often, more so than the B section. The A theme repeats very by all odds again at the start of the closing. The transitional material is brief and rest in the tonic, and the B theme is in the tonic. There is a short section at the end that is a bit different from the A or B theme that may be considered a coda. each(prenominal) in all, this is a very predictable, typical sonata form movement. These two movements are similar in that they are both sonata form movements, that they both relieve oneself two distinctive themes, and that these themes vary between legato and staccato styles.However, Haydn, who imperturbable during the classical period, adhered much more strictly to traditional sonata form, including proper transitions and key changes. The sections of the form are extremely easy to pick out and are in typical proportion to one another, with the development lasting the longest. Beethoven, who constitute during the Romantic era, obscured the form more than Haydn did, so that it bore resemblance to sonata theme but was unique in several ways. Th e examples together show a progression in the compositional styles through the musical periods.
Saturday, January 19, 2019
Minority is a word describing a conclave representing a population sm al wholenesser than the State. They atomic number 18 people of distinct finishing, religion, manner of speaking and paganity from the norms of the Society. Any assembly resembling the stated characteristics is a Minority. This description clearly emphasizes the disprover of Human Rights to people who are non living within the standards of the society. concourse Rights or Minority Rights, in a popular manner, speaks of the friendly un kindredness to some and a due right to others. Moreover, a conflict begins when an several(prenominal) holds of his/her minority grouping and yet, the State does non recognize a Minority.The group rights tend to protect a certain group and reflects the other laws excluded on their existence, which for many mortals is a direct inconsistency. Primarily, rights are powers to act in accord with the existing system having fosters and article of beliefs approved by t he society. It is a claim or title, whether legal, descriptive and moral (Sutton, 2001). The controversy exists regarding group rights on the terminal c all(prenominal)ed Multi paganism. This kind of group right often pertains to a member of an heathenish or religious group.Scholars perceive this kind of group right as a barrier to the fulfils that most ethnic groups take over before in that location was civilization. It is a systema skeletale of oppression because the majority opposes those traditional beliefs and pursues the so-called comparability to much(prenominal)(prenominal) people. aggroup rights exist to discriminate, oppose and eliminate the traditional acts for the gladness of the majority. MULTICULTURALISM Multiculturalism is the opinion that all cultures, from tribesmen and modern civilization, to be equal. However, equating does not wrap up the century old problem because of diverse conditions. Thus, multiculturalism confers with egalitarianism.The objec tive of multiculturalism is to obliterate the value of free, industrialized civilization, by declaring such civilization no better than the earthy tribalism. It wants to incapacitate the minds ability to enjoin good from evil, to contrastiveiate life promoting to what life is negating. Some oppose this principle because they understanding out(a) that everyone has a right to moral judgment. The ideas and culture of a specific connection should have recognition and take to be. ISSUES ON MULTICULTURALISM umpteen question how the persons would respect such minority rights if the problem remains on cultural differences.The railway line of the multiculturalists detainers is that all cultures are equal and some factors climax from this culture are outstanding to the universal value. Some fruits of Enlightenment and egalitarian movements root from the cultural proponents. dark ethnic attire and kindle cuisine may seem interesting and attractive. Nevertheless, with the verity of women and childrens oppression gentlemanwide, multiculturalism is increasingly a policy to handle that oppression (Kamguian, 2005). The crimes against women become the celebration of traditional cultures and religions with the ignorance on it disadvantages.Governments of Western andtocks utilized the policy of multiculturalism in the past, which encourage and uphold the demands for group rights coming from native populations, ethnic minorities or religious groups. However, these cultures have societal cultures that wage members of meaningful ways of life across the full range of military man activities, including social, educational, religious, and recreational life. Because these societal cultures play an essential role in the lives of members and because these cultures organisation extinction, they should have special rights for protection.This accord with group rights but that is not the vitrine with the societal norms like slavery, female genital mutilation, gistd m arriages, honor killing and other horrors respected by the society. These horrible practices are within the multicultural principle but it the proper action is to eradicate it. The reason begins with multiculturalism, which acts as a substitute policy to ensure a tolerant and democratized meekness in a world that conflicts between cultures eradicate such values. Moreover, the argument leads to racism and tyranny, as the dominant group want to create a universal norm.Another argument consists of the benignant basic need for cultural attachments. This need then should have protection from validating and protecting different cultures. The supporters of multiculturalism contrast that individual rights is sufficient enough for protection of minority cultures or their way of life that has a consequence of having special group rights and privileges such as arbitrations from Sharia in Canada and allowances fro polygamous men in France. In other cases, group rights claim to have politica l exclusions, govern their principles and apologize them from the general law.Often, cultures are patriarchal and many cultures claim group rights are more patriarchal than the surrounding cultures. Ex angstromles are the common gender inequalities like child marriages, forced marriages, divorce systems biased against women, polygamy and clitoridoctomy. These cases violate women and childrens individual rights of the society. This respect for cultural traditions resulted to lack of support and voices for women and children and the marginalization of progressive forces. When one conserves the culture of these minority groups, they would see how oppression and repression reside within their sustain communities.Not all cultures are equal scour though forgiving race possess culture, some may be better that the other cultures and others may possess values unacceptable to the society. Indeed the very idea of equality is the product of the Enlightenment and the political and intellec tual revolutions that it unleashed (Kamguian, 2005). Forcing equality means to repugn accepted practices and believing in possibility of transformation. However, permitting the differences by the dominant culture is the acceptance of the society as a whole. The conversion movement is not imparting knowledge to students, but promoting racism. Michael S. Berliner Racism is a notion directional one race as superior to some other race. The affirmative action viewed by some is a form of ethnic potpourri, a form of politically correct disguise. The belief of racism is that ones convictions, values and character is particularly based on anatomy or rake and not by judgment. This view tends to see people of different pigmentation as different from the superior pigmentation. The spread of racism causes destruction of the individual in ones mind. This individual then clings to another race, wanting to have that belongingness because of race diversity.Proponents of diversity seem to be th e true racists because they see the world through the color of lens, hair and skin. To multiculturalists, values, thinking and human identity all cling to race. Multiculturalism establishes the oppression in equality. Proponents of diversity teach the youth that people having different cultures also have different capacities resulting to recognition of separatism and glorifying a specific race. This revolutionizes racial identity that aims to erect an unbridgeable perception on race differences.Hence, any cooperation between races is impossible because of their differences existence emphasized. ETHNICITY AND GROUP RIGHTS The heathenish Group has group rights that defend their members who want to exercise their right to exonerate and enables them to act diversely from the majority. The ethnic group supports their group rights and their representatives, subsequently. It is unnecessary and inapplicable to put these rights in a metaphysical entity, which bear their independent human characteristics. In addition, the right in question resorts to be a negatively charged claim. The majority should not forbid such groups to defend their rights.In fact, for the reason that they have the utmost power in defense team, they should assist the minority to respect and bear the minority rights in a positive way. However, this can harbor to a situation where the ethnic group does a solemn bumble not prevented by the existing rules and regulations. Another is that the ethnic group should observe the group rights, voluntarily and autonomously. People cannot defend a right not chosen by them. Sutton defines that in order to enact such rights they must(prenominal) show the capacity to understand to successful claimants (Sutton, 2001, p 21).The ethnic group rights should correspond with the human rights, as it would give them the right to protect such liberties whenever the majority, which also has human rights, opposes their ethnic habits. Nonetheless, the civil liberty o f individuals and ethnic group rights come from the principle of prima facie rights, which explains the liberty experienced by the ethnic group due to these rights has limitations whenever the ethnic habits impose grave suffering or serious restrictions of liberty on other human beings.In general, the indebtedness of the majority has a craft not to restrict freedom when they coveting to observe harmless habits and if the majoritys opposition puts a grave suffering to the ethnic group, then, they have to restrict such opposition (Hayry, 2007). Ethnic minorities do not have a group right to force or coerce their members into observing duties, which are not required by the principles of liberty and the avoidance of suffering (Hayry, 2007).Individuals have three duties, the handicraft not to inflict harm to another individual, the calling not to restrict immoderately the freedom of others and the duty not to breach voluntary, harmless contracts. The first duty means for the individ uals to act accordingly to the rule of the group without coercing such right. The argument then is the term ethnic group coerces their right because they did not have the term themselves but a group will not defend a right not made by them. Hence, the general synthesis is to coerce such freedom, which they themselves have not freely assumed.The aid duty restricts any enforcement of freedom, which proves to be unnecessary to the ethnic group. The majority would see that being a member of a minority group would enforce the second duty that is false in belief that will alter the norms. Conversely, everyone has the duty to restrict or condemn habits that will impose suffering and untenable restrictions of freedom. In general, the second argument gives the majority the right to restrict ethnic habits given that it will impose harm to the society but it should outdistance the principles of equality and fairness.Most of the majority will regard the thesis of defense concerning ethnic habits, which they find different from the norms, false. This is natural, as the dominant groups want a homogenous society supplying the best foundation for human flourishing, even if it costs the principle of liberty and avoidance of suffering. Nonetheless, the significant patterns that endow social conformity should have actions in eliminating cultural diversity (Hayry, 2007). INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS MULTICULTURALISM The principle on individualism is the individual as the primary unit of reality and the ultimate preference of value.Contrary to what other opinions say, individualism does not disclaim the existence of a society rather the society as a group of individuals not above those individuals. Individualism sees every person as the end of himself and there should be no sacrifice of an individual for another (Stata, 1992). The achievement of an individual credits for himself/herself and not based on the achievements of others. level off though the society believes of individua lism as isolation, it does not deny the cooperation but is a theory of the conditions living and working with other people as beneficial.In general, individualism gives credit to an individual and not on the individuals membership with a society. The probable cure for racial differences is individualism or seeing the person not because of his/her race but because of his/her abilities. The diversity movement aims to teach the chase diversity awareness, diversity training, diversity hiring and submissions and diversity accommodations, which all refer to racial preference. The proper dose on racial issues is to appreciate individually and treatment of collective merits (Locke, 2000). CONCLUSIONProtection of human rights in various fields becomes depressing in the past century. Many have resulted to war, as they protect their community from discrimination and sustenance of group rights. Before group rights, many institutions protected the safety of minorities. Three major periods exist ed in favor of minority group rights. The first period appeared in a non-systematic protection comprising mainly of incorporation of protective clauses, particularly in favor of religious minorities. The second period existed after World contend I within the framework of the League of Nations.Lastly are the developments following World War II (Lerner, 2003) on group rights. With all these developments in minorities and group rights, still the existing truth on racial discrimination is emerging. Many say of diversity as an act of racism, that employing group rights does not prove to be efficient in eradicating discrimination. Briefly, group rights is not a power rather a suppression, racial diversity and oppression secrecy in equality.ReferencesBerliner, M. Diversity and Multiculturalism. 24 May 2000 14 November 2007 <http//www.aynrand. org/ put/News2? JServSessionIdr009=rpsx4ci8k4. app7a&page=NewsArticle&id=5195&news_iv_ctrl=1076> Sutton, P. Kinds of Rights in Country Recognising Customary Rights as Incidents of Native Title. 2001. 14 November 2007 p. 29 National Native Title Tribunal. Hayry, H. Ethnicity and Group Rights, Individual Liberties and Immoral Obligations. 14 November 2007 <http//www. bu. edu/wcp/Papers/Soci/SociHayr. htm> Minority. 14 November 2007 <http//www. terralingua. org/Definitions/DMinority. html> Kamguian, A. frequent Rights versus Individual Rights. 6 July 2005 14 November 2007 <http//www. iheu. org/node/1691> Culture and Multiculturalism. 14 November 2007 <http//www. aynrand. org/ settle/PageServer? pagename=media_topic_multiculturalism> Locke, E. Individualism The Only Cure for Racism. 12 December 1997 14 November 2007 <http//www. aynrand. org/site/News2? JServSessionIdr009=rpsx4ci8k4. app7a&page=NewsArticle&id=6167&news_iv_ctrl=1076> Lerner, N. Group Rights and Discrimination in International Law. Boston Martinus Nihjoff Publishers, 2003.
Friday, January 18, 2019
Im going to show you a short clip from the mental picture Full Metal Jacket directed by Stanley Kubart, the guy Mr. MacBrides brother mentioned yesterday in the LMC. In this scene, this group of American soldiers fin whollyy found and wounded the sniper that had already killed 3 of their men. One of which is Jokers, the heros, best friend, Cowboy.In the scene we good watched, the sniper was wounded, and Baldwin precious to leave the sniper to rot, moreover Joker kills her instead. This leads the audience wonder Did Joker kill her because he precious to end her misery, or did he kill her out of frustration and as way of revenge for his friend, Cowboy? The significance isnt in the answer, just now in the question itself. The fact that this movie makes you doubt Jokers motives shows that this is a professedly struggle story. There is no moral in Full Metal Jacket.There are no good guys and perverting guys, and there isnt a clear commercial enterprise drawn amidst justice and evil. You dont smack hatred towards the Viet Cong sniper, and you dont have undying support the American soldiers. Its different from all the other clich, patriotic war movies. Like Tim OBrien writes A true war story is never moral. It does not instruct, nor encourage virtue, nor suggest models of suitable human behavior, nor restrain men from doing the things men have always done. If a story seems moral, do not believe it. If at the end of a war story you feel uplifted, or if you feel that some refined bit of rectitude has been salvaged from the larger waste, then you have been made the dupe of a very old and terrible lie.No one would make out what Joker did was a model of proper human behavior, because no one knows if he killed the sniper out of sympathy or to fulfill his lustfulness for vengeance. Baldwin wanted to do what men have always done he wanted to let the sniper feel the amount of pain and sorrow he feels he wanted her to die a slow, painful death, he wanted revenge . The ending doesnt uplift you, and the situation the soldiers were in allowed no rectitude. all(a) these factors integrated create a masterpiece to what OBrien would proudly address as a true war story.The Things They Carried is ironic in a way that it tells you how to tell a true war story, but the allegory itself is a do of fiction. However, this doesnt mean the stories themselves arent realistic they are, as OBrien would say, the story virtue. Sometimes the story truth is truer than the happening truth, because it makes things feel present. Reading this book makes the reader feel confused, and even cheated, because by creating a fictional protagonist called Tim OBrien, a soldier who fought in the Vietnam War, the author, Tim OBrien, a Vietnam war veteran, is luring us into believing that these stories are true. By treating this work as a work of non-fiction, the reader sympathizes for the soldiers, and forms an emotional connection with the characters.In the chapter, Good Fo rm, OBrien tells you everything is made up. We, as readers, experience a sudden psychological change, and this change mirrors the psychological change the soldiers of the war experienced. We work out the stories differently now, and the soldiers were forced to view life and death differently. Notice in The Lives of the Dead, everyone in OBriens platoon shook hands with the perfectly Vietnam soldier, gave him a can of orange slices, and talked to him. In order to cope with the savageness of the war, these guys had to reanimate the dead. They had to see and treat him as if he was alleviate springy to relieve their guilty conscience of murder.After we realize these tales are just tales, we readers are forced view these stories through a different lens, and those boys who went to war had to see the war through the lens of soldier. Much like how surrogate Jimmy Cross was trained not to see his men as individuals, but rather as interchangeable units of command. OBriens well-educated setup allows the reader to experience to a certain degree how the soldiers entangle entering the war. If he just told us real stories, the happening truths, we would still empathize with them, but we wouldnt truly understand. This is why the story truth is sometimes truer, and more expressive than the happening truth.The Things They Carried is truly a considerable form of art, not only because of its stylistic language, but because it abandons tradition and blurs the line between fiction and non-fiction, creating brand new possibilities in the world of literature.
Thursday, January 17, 2019
The late 19th century produced a myriad of successful authors, poets and play-writes that often incorporated the local customs, traditions and expectations of the time (and perchance their experience experiences) into their work. A detail of the times, even into early 20th century, is that women were non equal to men and the expectations of women were not equal as well. This point will be illustrated by comparative analysis of two separate mannikins of belles-lettres Tristan Bernards humorous play Im outletA clowning in One practise, and Kate Chopins short story The chronicle of an moment. Authors tail end use plays, stories or poems to use up us into their world, and through idea we can connect with them, if only briefly, and enjoy their point of view and what they be trying to convey. Through their musical composition, they ar actually giving us a look at history and through that snapshot of time we can see the differences between societys expectations consequentl y and now. Tristan Bernards (1866-1947) Im GoingA Comedy in One Act (1915), (Clugston, 2010a), is a play set in Paris about a married couple (Henri and Jeanne) who on a Sun mean solar day morning are trying to decide how they are going to spend their day. Henri hopes to go to the races that he wants Jeanne to stay collection plate, though she wants to go with him, or to see her partner (Clugston, 2010a). The theme of the play is one of distrust and manipulation, as each genuinely wants to spend the day on their own, and at the end of the play that is on the dot what they do (Clugston, 2010a).See more Analysis of Starbucks coffee company employees attemptIn this play, Bernard uses the setting of the stage and symbolization to convey to the audience a sense datum of separate desires of the couple starting with the opening scene when Henri and Jeanne encipher and sit on opposite sides of the room (Clugston, 2010a). Bernard, in fact, used symbolism in many of his works, and exp loited the psychoanalytical technique to draw his dramas in concert (Degasse, 2008). What one tangiblely has to look through the mist to see, however, is how Bernard incorporates societys expectations (or double standard) of women in Paris (and throughout the world, real), though in a humorous and dramatic style, into the play.One has to keep in mind that the virile audience of that time probably had the same attitude and beliefs as the grapheme Henri, and though it may have been viewed as right or wrong, women were expect to be subservient and obedient trance the staminate was allowed further granting immunitys. Henri wants to goes to the races solo, and ultimately, that is what he does term Jeanne stays home, but let us look deeper at the play and uncover the nuances that show the inequality of the times and how Bernard conveys that conviction.After Henri and Jeannes initial entrance and they set down, the first thing that happens is Henri makes a mark about how ever y Sunday the weather is nice until noon, thus its quaggy and rainy or there is an advancing thunderstorm (Clugston, 2010a). This verbal mirror image of the weather may be a metaphor and actually interpret two meanings one is that it is in fact rainy and Henri is setting a negative atmosphere for Jeanne who expects him to take her out for the day, and the other could be the each week Sunday dilemma of Henri trying to go to the races without Jeanne.The rainy, or soon to be, day also sets a tone of despair, but provides Henri with an excuse to go to the races middling and save him and his wife the additional cost of a carriage in order to avoid the rain, and additional cost of a ladies ticket (Clugston, 2010a). In truth, it is just a manipulation of the circumstances for Henri to try to dissuade Jeanne in joining him at the races (Clugston, 2010a).Then in Bernards Im Going, A Comedy in One Act (1915), Henri recommends a perambulation (a walk) with his wife instead of accompany ing him to the races and Jeanne responds Yes, up the Champs-Elysees in concert And have you expression daggers at me all the time Whenever I do go with you, youre al centerings making disagreeable remarks. Henri responds with Because you are in a fully grown humor youll never give me your arm. (Jeanne called him on his bluff, because he really doesnt want to take a walk either), (cited in Clugston, 2010a, 1. 1. 26-29).She has no real intention of going for a walk with him as she did not call up to go to the races, but does not want to see him go unaccompanied to the races and enjoy himself only if, either. This is other example of manipulation her manipulating him and vice versa, and starts the back and frontward farce of both supposedly wanting to spend the day together when they really do not (Clugston, 2010a). When Jeanne decides Henri can go to the races alone because she intends to go see a friend, Henri decides he will stay at home and not go to the races (Clugston, 2010a).This is an obvious representation of the keep up not trust the wife, and even though she has given sanction to him to proceed, he aban endures all intentions to cede because of his suspicion of her meeting with her friend and also perhaps meeting another man. The deception between both sections is obvious at this point in the play but not obviously clear as to why. though we know by this point that Henris intention has always been to go to the races alone, it is not yet clear why Jeanne reacts the way she does.Is it that she is abused, or expect to stay home alone while Henri goes to the races, or does she have her own nefarious agenda, or both? Finally, and by and by much back and ahead ruse of both characters, Jeanne decides to stay at home alone and lets Henri bring out for the races alone, only to delight in the fact that she can spend her afternoon working on hats and enjoying chocolate at home as exact immediately after Henri departs for the races in Bernards Im Going A Comedy in One Act (1915), (cited by Clugston, 2010a, 1. 1. 81-185) (Waits for a moment, listens, and hears the outer door close, then rises, and goes to the door at the back.She speaks to someone off-stage) Marie, dont go forward you get me a large form of chocolate. Bring two rolls, too. Oh, and go at once to my room and bring me my box of ribbons and those old hats. (She comes down- stage, and says beaming) What fun Ill have trimming hats throughout this play Jeanne is pass judgment by Henri to stay at home while he enjoys the afternoon alone, and disrespect the opposition Jeanne gives him, she eventually desists and Henri has his way while she is left at home.This is an excellent example of how women were treated by their husbands then as compared to how most men and women interact today. on that point was probably no other recourse for the character Jeanne but to resolve herself to some amusement at home with her hats, and chocolate, and rolls. It could be argued that that is what she cherished all along, that she only wanted a reassurance that her husband loved her, but probably not, more than seeming she simply had no other choice than to occupy her Sunday alone as best as she could and succumb to her husbands wishes.thither stands some ambiguity as to whether they really love each other, or if Jeanne is simply stuck and cannot get out of the situation she is in. Sixteen years forward than the play by Tristan Bernard discussed above, but in the same era of male dominance, Kate Chopin (1850-1904) wrote several short stories and novels which also depict the sexist plight of women in her time and the choices they had to endure in order to survive, including quite possibly national violence in a time when no recourse was forth feeler (Tate, 2000).Unlike Bernard, who was a renowned writer at the age of 25, Chopin was considered a feminist, and as a young widow who had to raise six children alone when she lost her husband to swamp fever, s he eventually succeeded by turning to writing and was widely accepted in the southern United States literary band (Tucker, 1996). Much of her writing incorporates her own life experiences and tribulations, such as The Awakening, (1899) which depicts a 19th century woman who is adulterous, but maintains her strength and individuality despite of what society thinks about her (Tucker, 1996).It is of little doubt that Kate Chopin was of the same opinion and character of many of those characters in her stories. According to Leary (1968), much of her writing Speaks of marital sadness and of dangers which lie in wait for people who do as they want to do without concern for other people (p. 60). Kate Chopins The stage of an Hour (1894), (Clugston, 2010b), is written clearly and succinctly leaving little room for ambiguity or misinterpretation.Chopins direct style of writing draws the reader in quickly and gives immediate insight to what is happening and what the feelings of the character s are, thus increasing the brain of what the author is trying to convey. Like Bernard, Chopin uses symbolism and tone to enhance the (in this case) imaginary setting to further the readers experience. Unlike Bernard, Chopins form was short stories and novels instead of plays to be performed in front of live audiences.It is also important to look at Kate Chopin from a biographical/historical location to realize Chopin has also used life experiences as a primer for some of her characters in this story Mr. mallard has reportedly been killed in a train accident, while in reality Kate Chopins father really was killed in a train accident (Tucker, 1996).According to Seyersted, (cited in Kelly, 1994, p. 332), after critiquing Athenaise, he states that In spite of its happy ending, this tale is, on a deeper level, a protest against womans condition. Seyersted is undoubtedly referring to womens conflict at that time for equality with men. Closer comparison of this story with Bernards pla y will bring to the surface many similarities of the uphill scrape women of this era endured and how it is depicted and evident in our literature. In Chopins The Story of an Hour, the main character, Mrs. Mallard receives word at home that her Husband had been killed in a train accident, she was distraught and crying, and when this subsided, she retires alone to a large armchair face up an open window in her room (Clugston, 2010b).This initial reaction to her freeing seems fairly normal up to this point in the story, but then the Narrator sop ups what Mrs. Mallard sees, smells and hears from the open window, using symbolism and tone to describe a renewal in life, as described in Chopins Story of an Hour, (cited by Clugston, 2010b, para. 5) She could see in the open square before her house the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life. The delicious snorkel breather of rain was in the air.In the street below a baby carriage was crying his wares. The notes of a distant song which some one was notification reached her faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves. As the story unfolds, Mrs. Mallard feels an emotion coming to her which she initially cannot identify, but ultimately does identify it it is relief and a sense of a newfound immunity (Clugston, 2010). But why would she feel this way now unless she felt oppressed or abused when her husband was viable? A better description of what Mrs.Mallard had endured under her Husbands rule and what she imagined the future to hold is stated in the story There would be no powerful will bending hers in that maneuver persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to see a private will upon a fellow-creature (cited in Clugston, 2010b, para. 14). The Author is oratory to the reader about this issue in 1894, a very discourteous and controversial statement for a time in which women were not expected to behave this way.Nearing the end of the story Mrs. Mallard fin ally accepts her newfound freedom and rejoices to herself Free Body and soul free (cited in Clugston, 2010b, para. 19), only to be persuaded out of her room by her sister and lead downstairs just as her husband comes through the front door, he was in fact not dead after all (Clugston, 2010). Mrs. Mallard died upon seeing her husband though the doctors said it was middle disease (earlier in the story it does computer address she had a weak heart), (Clugston, 2010). One has to wonder though, did Mrs. Mallard die from heart disease or is this another symbol the Author uses to express Mrs. Mallard (or any oppressed woman) would rather die than give up her freedom and individuality?Tristan Bernards Im Going A Comedy in One Act is a play written by a man in France sixteen years after Kate Chopins The Story of an Hour, which is a short story written by a woman in the United States. Though there are differences in the Authors, origin, form, audience or reader, some compelling similaritie s exist the time they were written (1915 & 1894, respectively), that both Authors incorporate issues of the time into their work, and perhaps most importantly, they both display the subservient, oppressive place which women are expected to take in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Wednesday, January 16, 2019
The streets of London enclosed this humble infant. Unaw be of where he is where his momma is, he continued to patrol the distant streets. The exhaustion of the young boy is unbear adequate to(p) to think of. Although unfamiliar with his surroundings he continued to walk, squall with anticipation where is he? Freddy had been tour London for the first time with his endearing mum. They got on so well. His mum was a alternatively rounded radiation pattern with big good-for-naught eyes and elongated eyelashes to balance her silhouette. She was a absurd wo composition eer entertaining her companions.Never a dull mo when she was around. Freddy loved her with all his heart and hoped he was safe dreaming. Freddy and his mum were visiting sights in London, precisely he wasnt happy with this. He scorn it, the thought of walking around all day long spirit at tedious buildings that all appeared identical made him aggravated what was the aim? Live life while you can is what his mum used to sound out to him. Whats the point spending a beautiful Sunday dawn indoors while you can be outdoors, celebrating the beauty of our capital city Nothing could ever bring her downeven Freddys unskilled behaviour. He thought it would middling be about influential buildings, effectual statues and everyplacecrowded town centres But more was to come When they first arrived, Freddy was world preferably disrespectful mocking fellow tourists, giving his mum the cold berm and even locking himself in the cafi?? bathroom But his mum understood, she always did. Freddy walked and walked, not enjoying the scenery with hope he would soon find someplace appealing. As he continued to trek, he noticed the reflection of a daunting old man on the trunk of a handing over car.The reflection nabmed lifeless yet full of hatred and anger. His long opaque slimy hair wrapped across his large forehead with blue eyes good visible beneath it. He was wearing a long black leather jacket a lmost touching the dump with a large shiny object poking out from the inner pocket. He could see his full length jacket flapping from lieu to side as it harmonized with the rhythm his walk. He appeared to be a tall man with big broad shoulders yet with a piddling frame. His image seemed worthy of that of a monster. Freddy stopped. Looked for his mum, she was nowhere to be seen.He peered over his right shoulder, to what seemed like his worst nightmare. Hastily attempting to rush through a crowd of passing pedestrians trying to get away as quick as possible. But suddenly he tripped to found himself landing on the rotting pavement. His pulse now increasing as if his heart was being snatched out of his chest then receiving a brutal punch to the exclusively in which was left. Blood was rushing from his head to his toes and back and forth, back and forth. cursorily rising to his feet he continues to run, running faster and faster, trying to find somewhere to hide.Scared that if he s tops, the old man would catch him, torture him, thinned him, the thought was unbearable. The poor little boy was petrified, trembling with fear, looking for somewhere to escape to. He glimpsed behind his shoulder and to his surprise the man had gone. What just happened? Freddy distraughtly thought to himself. Was it a hallucination caused by his mums disappearance, or was it real, was that man really there? Freddy now tried to stay in places where people were around, but his racing mind couldnt shoot besotted thoughts out his head.He wanted his mum to be there so desperately, she his best friend, he needed her now. I need to find her he thought to himself. But where was he to come out of the closet? He was in a city he did not know his way round of and lastly remembered his mum saying that if something happened and she wasnt around then to meet her just off Oxford street at a cafi?? called Donmarche. Quick I have to get there now Rapidly gazing behind the left over(p) cardboa rd box he was hidden behind, he checked both(prenominal) ways to make sure that the man wasnt around, at one time left, once right, and again just to be sure.Once he had the reassurance he wasnt around, his legs where already in motion trying to get back to his fender destination. After a few moments of none stop running, he comprehend a familiar sound from behind. Turning round slowly to see if he could see it, he noticed a shadow upon the wall. A shadow with large broad shoulders but yet with a small frame, a shadow of extreme familiarity but not that of good familiarity but that of a horrific familiarity already experienced by Freddy.Freddys straightaway reaction was to run, but that of the gaze coming from the man is too laborious to pull away from. The contact between the two if disrupt able and yet strangely comforting, but only for the fact that his eyes are big and blue with beautiful elongated eyelashes, just like those, that scan at him daily with love and care. Af ter a moment of bind ness he hears a screaming voice coming from the imbue of the road, he peers over the mans right shoulder to see a rather rounded figure running up the road. Elation fills Freddys heart.His shoulders start to relax and the view of his adorable mum makes him feel at once comforted. He and his mum spend hours, it seems, in an embrace, but eventually realising that the man is standing behind him he turns and quickly tells his mum about what has happened. She just stands there and laughs Freddy darling, I brought you to London to meet your uncle Say hello to uncle Fred Freddy doesnt reply. He looks up at his mum in complete astonishment but eventually pulls them both into an embrace with a sigh of relief.
Tuesday, January 15, 2019
genuineness is a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity argon desirable, proper, or appropriate in spite of appearance some neighborlyly constructed system of norms, economic value, beliefs, and definitions (Suchman, 1995, p. 574, emphasis in original) au consequentlyticity system has become iodin of the about cited theories at bottom the sociable and environmental accounting area. Yet there remains deep scepticism amongst many look intoers that it offers any real acumen into the voluntary revelations of jackpots. This brief paper outlines responses to two specific concerns identified in the literature. It will eveningtually regulate part of a much bigger project shell outing a range of releases associated with genuineness theory.First, the paper brings some of the more than recent developments in the management and ethical literature on authenticity and corporations to the accounting table. Second, there are contri exactlyions to the th eory that brace already been make by accounting inquiryers that are yet to be fully recognised. The compose believes that legitimacy theory does offer a powerful mechanism for taking into custody voluntary affectionate and environmental disclosures made by corporations, and that this understanding would add a vehicle for engaging in critical everyday debate.The trouble for legitimacy theory in contributing to our understanding of accounting disclosure specifically, and as a theory in general, is that the term has on antecedent been physical exercised fairly loosely. This is non a problem of the theory itself, and the observance could be equally applied to a range of theories in a range of disciplines (see for example Caudill (1997) on the abuse of Evolutionary system).Failure to adequately specify the theory has been identified by Suchman (1995, p. 572, emphasis in original), who notice that Many researchers employ the term legitimacy, but few define it. Hybels (1 995, p. 241) comments that As the tradesmen sic of amicable science apply groped to build elaborate theoretical structures with which to supply their careers and disciplines, legitimation has been a blind mans hammer. This paper begins to address these issues.Not One system but Two (at least)An instantant issue which ask to be acknowledged is that there are in incident two major classes of legitimacy theory. These are graphically presented in jut 1 below. The macro-theory of legitimation, known as Institutional authenticityTheory, deals with how organisational structures as a whole (capitalism for example, or g everywherenment) have gained acceptance from rescript at large. inside this tradition, legitimacy and institutionalization are virtually synonymous. Both phenomena empower organizations primarily by making them seem natural and meaningful (Suchman, 1995, p. 576, emphasis in original).In terms of accounting research, given the time frames involved and questions primarily creation considered, the current business environment, including the capitalist structure, democratic government, etc. are generally taken as a given, a static context inside which the research is situated. This assumption would, however, need to be carefully considered for a longitudinal study of any signifi substructuret length. Figure 1 Layers of legitimacy TheoryINSTITUTIONAL aimGOVERNMENT RELIGION SOCIETY CAPITALISMORGANISATIONAL LEVEL(IN THIS CASE COMPANY LTD BY SHARE) brass Defence Extension aidFrom the Moral to the MeasurableOne layer down from the Institutional aim is what in Figure 1 is called the Organisational Level (sometimes referred to as Strategic authenticity Theory). Underlying organizational legitimacy is a process, legitimation, by which an organization seeks grace (or avoidance of sanction) from groups in society (Kaplan and Ruland, 1991, p. 370).It is from this level that most accounting research tends to draw its understanding of legitimacy . Mathews (1993, p. 350) provides a good definition of legitimacy at this level Organisations seek to establish congruence between the social values associated with or implied by their activities and the norms of acceptable behaviour in the larger social system in which they are a part. In so off the beaten track(predicate) as these two value systems are congruent we chamberpot turn to of organisational legitimacy.When an actual or electromotive force disparity exists between the two value systems there will exist a threat to organisational legitimacy. At its simplest, within the Organisational put one over legitimacy is an operational resource that organizations extract often competitively from their cultural environments and that they employ in pursuit of their goals (Suchman, 1995, p. 575 6, emphasis in original). legitimacy, simply like money, is a resource a business requires in golf club to operate. Certain actions and events increase that legitimacy, and opposites decrease it. Low legitimacy will have particularly dire consequences for an organisation, which could ultimately entice to the forfeiture of their right to operate.Although we can describe a firm as be legitimate, and conceive of amounts of legitimacy, it becomes a very unobjective exercise to try and directly measure legitimacy. Although it has concrete consequences, legitimacy itself is an abstract concept, given reality by multiple actors in the social environment. For a researcher to try and directly establish, or even rank, the legitimacy of various organisations would seem to be a necessarily subjective undertaking, preferencing the researchers own views. As Hybels (1995, p. 243) argues, I reject this view because it is based on a conflation of the roles of observer and participant in social science.As an alternative, rather than trying to subjectively measure a firms legitimacy directly it can preferably be inferred from the fact that being legitimate enables organizati ons to attract resources necessary for survival (e.g., singular materials, patronage, political approval) (Hearit, 1995, p. 2). Hybels (1995, p. 243) develops this in some detailLegitimacy often has been conceptualized as simply one of many resources that organizations must obtain from their environments. But rather than viewing legitimacy as something that is exchanged among institutions, legitimacy is better conceived as both part of the context for exchange and a by-product of exchange. Legitimacy itself has no material form. It exists only as a typic commission of the collective evaluation of an institution, as evidenced to both observers and participants perhaps most convincingly by the draw of resources. resources must have symbolic import to function as value in social exchange. But legitimacy is a higher-order representation of that symbolism a representation of representations. Hybels (1995, p. 243) argues that good samples in legitimacy theory must examine the re levant stakeholders, and how Each influences the flow of resources crucial to the organizations establishment, growth, and survival, either by direct control or by the communication of good will. He identifies (p. 244) quadruple critical organisational stakeholders, apiece of which control a number of resources.These are summarised in Table 1 below. Table 1 tiny Organisational Stakeholder STAKEHOLDER RESOURCES CONTROLLED Contracts, grants, legislation, regulation, tax (Note that the (1) The state last ternary of these could be either a negative or positive depending on the implementation) (2) The public (3) The financial community (4) The media Few direct resources however, can well influence the decisions of stakeholders (2) & (3) (if not (1)) Patronage (as customer), support (as community interest), push InvestmentThe last of these has received considerable attention. The power of the media has been noted by a number of researchers, including Patten (2002, p. 153), who s tates that while increased media attention can certainly lead to the latent for increased pressures from any of the three sources dissatisfaction of public new-fashioned or proposed political action increased regulatory oversight, increases in pressure can  in any case arise, particularly with respect to regulatory oversight. contain also Deegan et al. (2000, 2002). Companies try to manage their legitimacy because it helps to ensure the continued inflow of capital, labour and customers necessary for viabilityIt also forestalls regulatory activities by the state that efficacy occur in the absence of legitimacy and pre-empts product boycotts or other disruptive actions by external parties By mitigating these potential problems, organizational legitimacy provides managers with a degree of autonomy to decide how and where business will be conducted (Neu et al., 1998, p. 265).Researchers need to move amodal value from trying to directly assess legitimacy, and instead focus o n measuring it in terms of the resources relevant stakeholders provide. quite an than engage in the further development of entirely abstract constructions of the legitimation process researchers should investigate the flow of resources from organizational constituencies as well as the pattern and content of communications (Hybels, 1995, p. 244).But Wait Theres MoreAs shown in Figure 1 Organisational Legitimacy Theory suggests that a firm may be in one of four patterns with regard to its legitimacy. These phases are outlined below, some examples of industries/firms that might be considered to be operating in severally of these phases are included (further research needs to be undertaken in this area). Establishing Legitimacy. (E.g. Stem Cell based bio-tech).This first phase represents the early stages of a firms development and tends to revolve well-nigh issues of competence, particularly financial, but the organisation must be aware of socially constructed standards of quality an d desirability as well as perform in accordance with accepted standards of professionalism (Hearit, 1995, p. 2). Maintaining Legitimacy. (The majority of organisations). This is the phase that most firms would generally convey to be operating in, where their activities include (1) ongoing role performance and symbolic assurances that all is well, and (2) attempts to anticipate and prevent or forestall potential challenges to legitimacy (Ashford and Gibbs, 1990, p. 183). even so the maintenance of legitimacy is not aseasy as it may at first appear. Legitimacy is a dynamic construct. familiarity expectations are not considered static, but rather, change across time thereby requiring organisations to be responsive to the environment in which they operate. An organisation could, accepting this view, turn a outrage its legitimacy even if it has not changed its activities from activities which were previously deemed acceptable (legitimate) (Deegan et al., 2002, p. 319 20). Extending Legitimacy. (E.g. Alternative health Providers). There may come a point where an organisation enters new markets or changes the trend it relates to its current market.This can give rise to a need to extend legitimacy which is apt to be intense and proactive as management attempts to win the confidence and support of wary potential constituents (Ashford and Gibbs, 1990, p. 180). Defending Legitimacy. (E.g. Uranium Mining). Legitimacy may be threatened by an incident (internal or external), and therefore require disaffirmation. Legitimation activities tend to be intense and reactive as management attempts to counter the threat (Ashford and Gibbs, 1990, p. 183). tied(p) barring a major incident it is likely in the Hesperian Capitalist system that almost every corporation will on a regular basis need to defend its legitimacy, by the mere fact that corporations must adjoin both a competence and community requirement to realize legitimacy Satisfaction of shareowner interests of ten occurs at the expense of community concerns (e.g., the desp covering of the environment, the use of labour) while, conversely, responsibility to the larger community often occurs at the expense of the stockholder (Hearit, 1995, p. 3).It is this last phase that has tended to be the main focus of accounting researchers. It also provides us with the clearest opportunity to examine the crucial link between legitimacy and resources. Lindblom (1994), a key paper cited by many Social and environmental Accounting researchers, also seems relevant specifically to this phase only. An example of study in this area is Deegan et al.s (2000) study of five major incidents (including the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the Bhopal Disaster) which provided a context to examine the annual reports of related (in industrial terms) Australian firms to see if there had been a significant change in their social or environmental reporting.They concluded The results of this study are agreeable with legitimac y theory and show that companies do appear to change their disclosure policiesaround the time of major ships company and industriousness related social events. These results highlight the strategic nature of voluntary social disclosures and are unchanging with a view that management considers that annual report social disclosures are a useful device to reduce the effects upon a corporation of events that are perceived to be unfavourable to a corporations image (Deegan et al., 2000, p. 127).The Diagnosis Needs RefinementThis is where the traditional legitimacy model stops. However my own research, into the tobacco industry, Tilling (2004), and that of other researchers, including experimental research undertaken by ODonovan (2002), suggest a further development of the Organisational Legitimacy Level, as depicted in Figure 2 below. Added to the model is the conjecture that a firm may not successfully (or may be unable to) defend the threat to its legitimacy and actually start to brook legitimacy. Figure 2 Refinement of the Organisational Level of Legitimacy TheoryEstablishment LossDefence Disestablishment ExtensionMaintenanceIn this model the defence phase is usually entered by an organisation after some form of one-off incident or accident which threatens its legitimacy. This phase could be characterised as being acute, it can be serious, some times even fatal, but usually, with proper management, the organisation can maintain, or at least recover, its legitimacy. However should there be an ongoing series of events,indicative of a systemic issue, e.g. the nuclear power industry, or a single event with permanent consequences which cannot be effectively managed, e.g. realisation that the organisations product is not safe such as the tobacco industry, an organisation is likely to have its legitimacy eroded over a period of time (the loss phase), which can be characterised as chronic. The issue can be difficult to manage, and generally leads to declining legitimacy, however the loss may be managed and slowed over a long period of time, or significant change could lead to reestablishment of legitimacy.The loss phase is most likely to be preceded by sustained media and NGO scrutiny, and accompanied by increasing government regulation, monitoring and perhaps taxation. Within this phase there are likely to be periods where the company will increase its voluntary social and environmental disclosure in an effort to meet specific threats (such as to postpone or worst proposed regulations) or to communicate systemic corporate change (similar to the defence phase). However, with each new restriction average total disclosure can be expected to decrease.This idea is alluded to by ODonovan (2002) who argues, based on experimental evidence, that the lower the perceived legitimacy of the organisation, the less likely it is to bother providing social and environmental disclosure.Watch This SpaceLegitimacy theory offers researchers, and the wider public, a way to critically unpack corporate disclosures. However the understanding and study of the theory must become more sophisticated, drawing on developments both within the accounting literature and beyond. Only then will the full potential of legitimacy theory for examining a wide range of disclosures be fully realised. Areas that would provide useful insights include at the moment the asbestos industry (as it goes through the disestablisment phase), brothels (as they become much more legitimate within the Australian context), and the forestry industry (as it tries to defend its legitimacy), to name but a few.The knowledge gained will then be used to provide better and more useful teaching to inform decision making by stakeholders. In this way society is empowered to have greater control and oversight over the way resources are allocated.ReferencesAshford, B. E. and B. W. Gibbs (1990) The Double-Edge of Organizational Legitimation, Organization Science, Vol. 1, No. 2 , pp. 177 194. Caudill, E. (1997) Darwinian Myths The Legends and Misuses of a Theory, Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press. Deegan, C., M. Rankin and J. Tobin (2002) An Examination of the Corporate Social and Environmental manifestations of BHP from 1983-1997 A Test of Legitimacy Theory, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 312 343. Deegan, C., M. Rankin and P. Voght (2000) Firms Disclosure Reactions to Major Social Incidents Australian Evidence, Accounting Forum, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 101 130. Hearit, K. M. (1995)Mistakes Were Made Organizations, Apologia, and Crises of Social Legitimacy, Communication Studies, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, pp. 1 17. Hybels, R. C. (1995) On Legitimacy, Legitimation, and Organizations A Critical follow and Integrative Theoretical Model, Academy of Management Journal, Special stretch forth Best Papers Proceedings, 1995, pp. 241 245. Kaplan, S. E. and R. G. Ruland (1991) Positive Theory, Rationality and Accounting Re gulation, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 361 374. Lindblom, C. K. (1994), The Implications of Organizational Legitimacy for Corporate Social mental process and Disclosure, Critical Perspectives on Accounting Conference, New York. Mathews, M. R. (1993) Socially obligated Accounting, UK, Chapman & Hall.Neu, D., H. Warsame and K. Pedwell (1998) Managing Public Impressions Environmental Disclosures in yearbook Reports, Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 265 282. ODonovan, G. (2002) Environmental Disclosures in the Annual Report Extending the Applicability and Predictive force-out of Legitimacy Theory, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 344 371. Patten, D. M. (2002)Media Exposure, Public Policy Pressure, and Environmental Disclosure An Examination of the Impact of Tri Data Availability, Accounting Forum, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 152 171. Suchman, M. C. (1995) Managing Legitimacy Strategic and Institutional Ap proaches, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 571 610. Tilling, M. (2004), Communication at the Edge Voluntary Social and Environmental Reporting in the Annual Report of a Legitimacy Threatened Corporation. APIRA Conference Proceedings, Singapore, July.
It is often noned that two study world capacious flushts argon responsible for changes not only to the lives of ordinary good deal who make up the target markets of agate line organizations, however as well as to the operations of the said telephone line themselves. These events are namely The advent of globalized trade and youthful technological advances. Globalization of homo activities including trade has meant that backup are continuously being exposed to refreshing environments, new markets with unique and often tell apart preferences and on the loop-side, the ever present threat of competition vying for a identical market slice as the said line of descentes (Kehal & axerophthol Singh, 2008).It is not surprise therefore, when the postulate to gain a competitive advantage oer rivals has been the peremptory theme in the board rooms of a majority of companies with app trickeryd science more and more being seen as key to achieving mastery in this line of work (Kehal & adenylic acid Singh, 2008). Dep obliterateent on the industry, engine room could imply m whatsoever incompatible things.For companies in the manufacturing sector, applied science could mean the acquisition of a new weapon that eases the manufacturing task at hand while for sepa grade like those in horticulture industry, engineering science could mean adoption of a new delegacy to inter-crop plants in crop to eradicate disease olibanum improve on yields. However, digital technologies digest found a place in a multitude of businesses as they offer conglomerate advantages that cut across the board much(prenominal)(prenominal) as fastening communication and the retrieval of data (Kehal & antiophthalmic factor Singh, 2008).digital technologies refers to what is convention every(prenominal)y refereed to as In designation communication engineering science (Watkins, 2010). This encompasses computers and related net income ground media such as email and social networ king platforms (Watkins, 2010). Digital technologies similarly includes any form of networks in an organization including those restricted to operate within the organization, the intranet, and connections between a political party and outside affiliated organizations such as suppliers and distributors termedDigital engineering in Business 2 as the extrenet (Watkins, 2010). To define the operations of a federation These refer to the set systems, procedures and the randomness that guides them, that enable an organization to integrate, organize and anneal its primary hotfootes in order to deliver the goods its set goals (Daft & Marcic, 2008). For consolidation to be come acrossed optimum, data in the companys do main should be accessible to all touch on in two a epochly and eased way (Weil, 2010).On the other(a) hand, normalization in this context involves the standardization of an organizations business dish outes by getting rid of variations in business procedures among employees and departments (Weil, 2010). Different organizations encounter polar direct systems, with each system suited to the organization in mind (Weil, 2010). For instance, Cisco, a network solutions provider has made it possible for low-down businesses to engender information communication technology posteriord solutions by developing them and make them available through their partners worldwide.Procter & Gamble on the other hand, has launch local anesthetic marketing arms which are allowed the leeway to strategize on how scoop out they would exploit their immediate markets with other core service like clement imagination management and informational technology services centralized and standardized by the parent company (Weil, 2010). Though these models differ, that is of importance is not their apparent schism, but whether the chosen operating model has a chance at achieving success in the organization ( Watkins, 2010).The success of an operating system, i s dependent on the organizations faculty and managements uptake of the operating system, their willingness to follow it through and whether they are well furnished to make it work for the organization (Watkins, 2010). However, as noted to a higher place, the motivation for any operating business is to achieve success in the midst of competing interests and ever-changing business environment ( Kehal & Singh, 2008). This need by organizations has jumper lead to wide scale adaptation of new organization forms Digital technology in Business 3 heavily influenced by digital technologies (Kehal & Singh, 2008).This is beca mapping ascent evidence suggests that digital technologies enable the core activities in any business operating model, integration and normalization, to take place to a greater extent smoothly when compared to any other strategy (Weil, 2010). This paper by use of examples drawn from various industries, elaborates on these points, taking special note of how dig ital technologies let cause the operating models of companies, influenced the workings of the human re starting time aspect of a business, including both the benefits and challenges of digital technologies in organizations (Malecki & Moriset, 2008).Starting with the a look at the fulfiles complicated in the sensitive service industry such as the skyway industry quite often the obtains to an airline, namely those relate with maintainance, overhaul and reclaim of aircraft required to fill in detailed reports of the process such as the tools involved and the spare separate utilise during maintenance for the airlines documentation purposes( SITA, 2008).This process whitethorn subroutine out to be tideious and riddled with inefficiencies as it may involve filling in of similar details like the typewrite of aircraft and the organization owning repeatedly (SITA, 2008). Such tasks understructure be eased by adoption of digital technologies such as the use of Radio relati ve frequency Identification (RFID) hand held readers that would capture information from RFID enabled aircraft parts and simultaneously pct them with interested parties along the supply chain (SITA, 2008).The automation described above confers the airline company with several(prenominal) competitive advantages such as cash advance of relations with suppliers by facilitating their work therefore improving on its business operations (SITA, 2008). by this automated system, it becomes easier for the company to trace the parts used on their planes thus giving them the advantage of authenticating their reliability and case a factor that may go a long way in vouching for their Digital Technology in Business 4safety nature while at the same time, reducing on the operating be of the airline (SITA, 2008).The centralized data received from the readers may help in streamlining of the procurement process of the airline leading to a decrease in resource wastefulness and also gives the airli ne stability in damage of delivery of their core services, air transport, by ensuring that flight rottercellations due to delays in maintenance or un needful unscheduled maintenance worrys do not disrupt operations leading to flight delays and washstandcellations ( SITA, 2008).However, such centralized systems of data collection may pose some challenges to those involved. For instance, the ownership of the data may turn out to be a point of friction among the parties as the shared nature of collection and storage of the data may lead to challenges in the access and security of the data (SITA, 2008). In addition, for such a system to operate potently, the participation of a wide group of corporations is necessary (SITA, 2008).This may be a challenge for the corporations as issues such as who will finance the initial part of the adoption of digital technology may arise while later on as alluded above, disputes over the ownership of this system may arise while during operation, the costs involved in maintaining the digital technology may be problematic in terms of who will bear the burden of the cost oddly if the problem is arising from one end of the system leading to problems at the nether end (SITA, 2008). Digital technologies also offer ways in which employee productivity can be improved thus improving on the outcome of the corporation.Several areas in which digital technology can be of use in the organic evolution of internet based employee induction platforms which will enable the company say new employees into the company operating culture in a more engaging and interactive manner (Murphy, 2003). The costs involved in such a venture also tend to be less dearly-won in the long run as the initial resources, human resource and capital, needed to set up the program can be decrease and even eventually eliminated once the system had been set up Digital Technology in Business 5without any losses in quality of the process (Murphy, 2003)Training process th at is critical in human resource development and management in a corporation can also be aided by use of digital materials such as compact disks (CD). This not only provides a format of presenting the information in a easier to understand media forms such as videos and graphic illustrations, it also provides a reference library to the employee who in need and at will can reference back to aspects of the training program (Murphy, 2003).Use of such media such as CD and internet will allow training of employees who are based in areas other than where the actual training is occurring especially in corporations with branches in far flung markets as is the case I the globalized economy (Murphy, 2003). The employee also benefits from the luck of going through the training at their own pace and time , therefore improving on the likelihood of uptake of the information (Murphy, 2003). The other area where digital technologies offer advantages to corporations is in the area of employee incenti ves (Murphy, 2003).Through the platform of the internet, a company can offer employees opportunities of enrolling into affiliate programs earning them income, or they could be sequestered to discounts and offers from third party suppliers who deal with their employers (Murphy, 2003). for instance special mortgage rates may be offered to employees of a certain company via the mortgaging subsidiary of the believe that their employers use to transact their business operations (Murphy, 2003).These strategies may go along way mot only in motivating employees but also in enabling the company retain its talented and trained employees by ensuring their their loyally to the company thus reducing on a companys enlisting and training bill (Murphy, 2003). The benefits of digital technology enables a company organise its marketing strategy in order for exploit their niche as effectively as possible (Rust & Espinoza, 2006).This is made Digital Technology in Business 6possible by the room af forded in matters of gauging customer preference, dislikes and other characteristics during the process of market segmentation (Rust & Espinoza, 2006). Through portals like social media and internet based follows a company may gain useful insights about their consumers as these digital technologies offer a cost effective, non intrusive and consumer friendly means of interaction therefore bridging the rift between a companys management and its the customers (Rust & Espinoza, 2006).These benefits spill over as they contribute to customer loyalty making the customer feel that their tactual sensation is valued and by providing them with the rare opportunity of being involved in the development of their favorite product or service ( Rust & Espinoza, 2006). Quality control management is a critical part of a companys operations as it provides the means by which a company can keep the promises exhaulted by its brand to the market (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008).failure in the qua lity management system may lead to not only expensive changes in the brand image, but also to enormous costs involved in product recalls and in brushes with regulatory authorities (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008). galore(postnominal) another(prenominal) problems in the quality control management occur when there are variations in the execution of processes or in the material used in producing a good or service (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008).The use of digital technologies may shield a company from such eventualities by sporadically and automatically surveying the production process for deviations in the norm and warning signal the management of possible shortfalls in the system (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008). Digital technology based quality assurance systems are more reliable as they are not dependent on human schedules and shielded from human borne errors during production (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008). Internet based systems also allow fro the survey of the intricate details of d ifferent aspects of the production process even for companies that have outsourcedDigital Technology in Business 7 production either as a whole or in bits across geographically disperse areas (Malecki, & Moriset, 2008). An example of this is in the manufacture of airplanes by the Boeing and airbus whose different parts are assembled in different regions of the world. The reporting is also made easier especially in the event of a b fleet in the quality of the product, with the source of error pinpointed and dealt with saving on costs and time ( Malecki, & Moriset, 2008). Recently, a new form of trade has arisen where transactions in both goods and services are carried out via the internet (Burgess, 2002).The producer of the good may be on one end of the world while the consumer may be at the other (Burgess, 2002). Digital technologies provide for ways in which the purchaser and seller can meet irrespective of the distances and time zones involved (Burgess, 2002). The seller b enefits by finding a market fir their goods while the vendee benefits by having the leeway to window shop through out the internet meddling for their ideal product at the ideal price without the hustle of dealings with salesmen (Burgess, 2002).In addition the direct contact between the buyer and seller enables for customization of the process to suit either party (Burgess, 2002). This is especially advantageous for delicate businesses who want the machinery, resource and human investment needed to carry out an effective marketing campaign as large corporations (Burgess, 2002). Quite effectively O.K. by a single personal computer connected onto the internet and a a one-man-army sales team an entrepreneur can achieve their business goals (Burgess, 2002).This trade termed as e-commerce, has enabled individuals like authors sell their services even without an established local network of suppliers and distributors (Burgess, 2002). Large corporations are also increasingly joining t his bandwagon by providing portals like e- shops on their websites where special offers of their products can be viewed, purchased and ordered right to the customers doorstep (Burgess, 2002).By use of sophisticated but slow accessible forms of Digital Technology in Business 8forms of digital technologies the process of market segmentation described above are at the reach of entrepreneurs who otherwise would not have been able to exploit such advantages (Burgess, 2002). The small business owner is able to make up for his lower employee base and human resource pool by automating a majority of their business processes such as the installation of electronic tax register narrator machines may ease the process of filling for tax returns (Burgess, 2002).The operations of small businesses may also be expanded by collaboration with partners followers research on the internet without the huge costs involved in expansion such as the hiring of additional staff, the payment for new business p remises and the sometimes bureaucratic processes involved in meeting local regulatory standards and licensing issues (Burgess, 2002).Through digital technologies, owners of small businesses are offered tools by which they can communicate their businesses effectively but with minimal costs such as the use of promotional CD for a musician or a arranging company, easy to use software that enable the design of eye transmitted and effective banners, posters and fliers and through the position up of a website where additional information about the companys services is accessible to the market ( Burgess, 2002).Despite these advantages of the use of digital technologies in business operations, the process in usually fraught by many difficulties as alluded in some of the examples above. Some of the challenges are secondary to wretched doledge on the scope by which digital technologies can relate the operations of a company thus leading to the wrong excerpt made in the technology that would be of use to the organization ( Andriole, 2008).It should be remembered at this juncture that the key notion about operating systems is that they have to be well designed to suit the business they are think for, thus borrowing examples from other companies is encouraged but it should not be done in a cut- and- paste manner ( Andriole, 2008). For instance, Digital Technology in Business 9 a server, which is a computer with high touch capability, would be more suitable fore a small company with few employees while a single personal computer may suffice for a single proprietorship.Conversely a larger organization with several departments and more employees, would benefit more from several interconnected severs ( Andriole, 2008). However other challenges to digital technology arise from the human aspect of the process (Andriole, 2008). sometimes employees, through their unions, may resist the adoption of digital technology influenced operating systems due to fears arising about the likelihood of loss of employment and income via automation of processes (Daft & Marcic, 2008).In a large manufacturing plant, the quality of goods produced may be checked by a string of employees stationed along the conveyor belts, automation of this process by use of specialized robots run by sophisticated computers, may cater a large group of people jobless. This may hinder the impertinently instituted operating system to problems (Daft,& Marcic, 2008).The challenges of operating in digital technology may arise from difficulties in operating in the new environment due to inadequacy in skills and expertise to utilize the the digital l technology (Murphy, 2003). This is a problem as the new technology sort of of complimenting the employees and mangement, it serves to slow down the working of the organization as both groups may view digital technology as a stumbling block thus preferring to ignore or under utilize it by doing things the old way (Murphy, 2003).This scena rio is more pronounced in situations where the technology being introduced has been imported and is new to the business environment of the company (Murphy, 2003). This is because of the lack of adequate local support to smoothen the process of adoption by providing technical support (Murphy, 2003). The main challenge with digital technologies, lies in the costs involved in setting up and maintaining them (Andriole, 2008). The machinery involved may be costly especially for smallDigital Technology in Business 10 businesses and very large corporations, software to run computers is also costly and the maintenance of such systems often requires specialized men which may come at a premium (Andriole, 2008). When this is coupled with the rapid evolutionary tendency of digital technologies which render recently developed technologies as obsolete, it is easy to see why cost is frequently mentioned as a major stumbling block (Andriole, 2008).In some situations, there might be the need of hi ring additional staff just to maintain the system, training staff to know how to use the system every time the system is upgraded and this may turn into a demoralizing process (Andriole, 2008) .. In conclusion, this essay has highlighted the influence of digital technologies on the operations of organizations be they be simple small businesses or large multinationals dealing in several products and services (Malecki & Moriset, 2008).The challenges though apparent can be overcome by understanding digital technologies and keeping the goals and objectives of the organization in mind as the solution appears to lie in crafting an operating system that is in tandem with the organizations goals and vision (Daft & Marcic, 2008). The management of an organization should desists from taking a one-size-fits -all approach and should also consider the impact that their employees may have on the success of the digital technologies in thee organizations operations (Kehal & Singh, 2005).